Consolidation of servers and using cloud services. Consolidation of servers allows for a maximum use of physical server resources by creating many virtual server systems within one physical server. The process of consolidation consists of replacing a large number of ineffectively used servers with a smaller number, more effectively using virtual servers. It is also possible to use cloud services, i.e. external servers. Such solutions not only save physical space but also energy and allow for a fuller use of computing power. Providers of such services should inform their customers where the energy comes from, as was the case with these Swiss providers. The Green Web Foundation website contains a directory of data centre providers which use renewable energy.
Energy efficient equipment. These are appliances with high energy efficiency ratings. The highest energy class is A +++. It is worth checking electronic appliances for the Energy Star labels. Energy Star is a programme promoting energy efficient products. It defines maximum power consumption levels in three modes: on, standby and off. Energy efficient equipment should be repairable or have extended warranty.
Recycling of appliances. ICT is also about material infrastructure. Appropriate recycling of equipment allows for the recovery of valuable metals which could be used when producing new devices. Cleaning memory disks is also part of disposal procedures carried out by specialised companies.